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本文摘要:Many of the people who read this article will do so because Greg Marra, 26, a Facebook engineer, calculated that it was the kind of thing they might enjoy.许多读过这篇文章的人都会被转变,因为26岁的脸书工程师格雷格马拉统计资料这不会是人们十分享用的事。


Many of the people who read this article will do so because Greg Marra, 26, a Facebook engineer, calculated that it was the kind of thing they might enjoy.许多读过这篇文章的人都会被转变,因为26岁的脸书工程师格雷格马拉统计资料这不会是人们十分享用的事。Mr. Marra’s team designs the code that drives Facebook’s News Feed — the stream of updates, photographs, videos and stories that users see. He is also fast becoming one of the most influential people in the news business.马拉先生的团队负责管理设计编码脸书动态信息-新的消息、照片、视频以及用户们看的故事。他也迅速晋升为新闻业最有影响力的人之一。

Facebook now has a fifth of the world — about 1.3 billion people — logging on at least monthly. It drives up to 20 percent of traffic to news sites, according to figures from the analytics company SimpleReach. On mobile devices, the fastest-growing source of readers, the percentage is even higher, SimpleReach says, and continues to increase.脸书每个月最少有近世界五分之一的人口-约13亿人-指定。触手可及公司的数据员获取的数据指出脸书使人们对新闻网站的用于减少了20%。该公司还认为移动设备作为读者快速增长最慢的平台快速增长比例更大,并且还在持续增长中。

The social media company is increasingly becoming to the news business what Amazon is to book publishing — a behemoth that provides access to hundreds of millions of consumers and wields enormous power. About 30 percent of adults in the United States get their news on Facebook, according to a study from the Pew Research Center. The fortunes of a news site, in short, can rise or fall depending on how it performs in Facebook’s News Feed.这家社交媒体公司在新闻界的地位渐渐可与亚马逊在图书出版业的地位相媲美。它消费人数上亿,享有极大影响力。皮尤研究中心认为30%的美国成年人通过脸书加载新闻。

非常简单的说道就是一个新闻网站的命运与否各不相同其在脸书动态信息上的展现出。Though other services, like Twitter and Google News, can also exert a large influence, Facebook is at the forefront of a fundamental change in how people consume journalism. Most readers now come to it not through the print editions of newspapers and magazines or their home pages online, but through social media and search engines driven by an algorithm, a mathematical formula that predicts what users might want to read.尽管推特和谷歌新闻等其他服务商也享有极大影响力。脸书毕竟彻底改变人们消费新闻方式的领军人物。如今大多数读者都仍然通过纸质版报纸、杂志或者在线主页网页新闻,而是利用社交媒体和搜索引擎。

后者可以通过演算法即一种数学公式预测读者有可能想读书的新闻。It is a world of fragments, filtered by code and delivered on demand. For news organizations, said Cory Haik, senior editor for digital news at The Washington Post, the shift represents “the great unbundling” of journalism. Just as the music industry has moved largely from selling albums to songs bought instantly online, publishers are increasingly reaching readers through individual pieces rather than complete editions of newspapers or magazines. A publication’s home page, said Edward Kim, a co-founder of SimpleReach, will soon be important more as an advertisement of its brand than as a destination for readers.这是一个由片段包含的世界,弥漫着编码,按须要自定义。华盛顿邮报电子新闻高级编辑克里海客说道对新闻机构而言,这种改变意味著新闻业的“大拆分”。


“People won’t type in anymore,” Ms. Haik said. “It’s search and social.”“人们会再输入WashingtonPost.com了。”海客先生说道,“一切都要依赖搜寻和社交了。”The shift raises questions about the ability of computers to curate news, a role traditionally played by editors. It also has broader implications for the way people consume information, and thus how they see the world.该改变引起了有关电脑过滤器新闻能力的问题。这仍然以来都是编剧的工作。

它也对人们消费信息的方式导致更加多影响,进而波及人们看来世界的方式。In an interview at Facebook’s sprawling headquarters here, which has a giant, self-driving golf cart that takes workers between buildings, Mr. Marra said he did not think too much about his impact on journalism.脸书多栋总部大楼里有一辆极大的自动驾驶高尔夫球车可以载有着员工在楼宇之间穿越。

马拉先生就是在那里拒绝接受了专访,他说道他没有多想要自己对新闻的影响。“We try to explicitly view ourselves as not editors,” he said. “We don’t want to have editorial judgment over the content that’s in your feed. You’ve made your friends, you’ve connected to the pages that you want to connect to and you’re the best decider for the things that you care about.”“我们具体希望不把自己看作编辑。”他说道。


”In Facebook’s work on its users’ news feeds, Mr. Marra said, “we’re saying, ‘We think that of all the stuff you’ve connected yourself to, this is the stuff you’d be most interested in reading. ”马拉先生在谈及脸书在用户新闻消息方面所做到的工作的时候,他说道:“我们想要说道的是我们指出你相连的任何内容都会是你最想读的东西。”Roughly once a week, he and his team of about 16 adjust the complex computer code that decides what to show a user when he or she first logs on to Facebook. The code is based on “thousands and thousands” of metrics, Mr. Marra said, including what device a user is on, how many comments or likes a story has received and how long readers spend on an article.他和他的团队(16人左右)基本上每周都会调整一次要求用户在指定脸书后第一时间看见的内容的简单电脑编码。马拉先生说道这个编码创建在数以万计的权值基础之上,其中还包括用户用于的设备、某个故事取得的评论数量或者点拜数量以及读者们在读者某篇文章上花的时长。

The goal is to identify what users most enjoy, and its results vary around the world. In India, he said, people tend to share what the company calls the ABCDs: astrology, Bollywood, cricket and divinity.目标即为找到用户最钟爱的内容。世界各地爱好差距相当大。

他说道印度人往往不会共享被脸书公司称为入门科学知识的内容:占星术、宝莱坞、板球和神学。If Facebook’s algorithm smiles on a publisher, the rewards, in terms of traffic, can be enormous. If Mr. Marra and his team decide that users do not enjoy certain things, such as teaser headlines that lure readers to click through to get all the information, it can mean ruin. When Facebook made changes to its algorithm in December 2013 to emphasize higher-quality content, several so-called viral sites that had thrived there, including Upworthy, Distractify and Elite Daily, saw large declines in their traffic.如果脸书的演算法向某位出版商丝笑脸,那么该出版商的浏览量一定十分相当可观。如果马拉先生及其团队指出用户不讨厌某些东西,比如更有读者一路点究竟才能获取信息的取笑标题,那它就玩完了。2013年12月脸书对演算法作出转变特别强调高品质内容。

当时许多红极一时的所谓的热门网站浏览量大幅度暴跌。Facebook executives frame the company’s relationship with publishers as mutually beneficial: when publishers promote their content on Facebook, its users have more engaging material to read, and the publishers get increased traffic driven to their sites. Numerous publications, including The New York Times, have met with Facebook officials to discuss how to improve their referral traffic.脸书总管们将公司与出版商的关系叙述为互助。

当出版商提高其在脸书上的内容质量的时候,脸书用户就有更加有看头的内容可读书,而出版商网站的浏览量也不会减少。还包括《纽约时报》在内的众多出版物都与脸书官员碰头探究减少引荐流量的方法。The increased traffic can potentially mean that the publisher can increase its advertising rates or convert some of those new readers into subscribers.浏览量减少就有可能意味著出版商可以压低其广告费或者将那些新的读者改变为订阅者读者。Social media companies like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn want their users to spend more time,or do more, on their services — a concept known as engagement, said Sean Munson, an assistant professor at the University of Washington who studies the intersection of technology and behavior.华盛顿大学副教授肖恩芒森研究科技与不道德交叉点。

他说道像脸书、推特和相邻客音之类的社交媒体公司期望用户可以花上更加多时间用于其服务或者在其服务平台上做到更加多事情。这种观念被称作参与度。Facebook officials say that the more time users spend at its site, the more likely there will be a robust exchange of diverse viewpoints and ideas shared online. Others fear that users will create their own echo chambers, and filter out coverage they do not agree with. “And that,” Mr. Munson said, “is when you get conspiracy theories.”脸书官员称用户在其网站上逗留的时间越久网络上就不会有就越白热化的有所不同意见点子交流。

有人担忧用户不会创立自己的回音室,并且过滤器掉他们不接纳的报导。芒森说道:“那就是你产生阴谋论的时候不会有的点子。”Ben Smith, editor in chief of BuzzFeed, a news and entertainment site, said his rule for writing and reporting in a fragmented age is simple: “no filler.” News organizations that still publish a print edition, he said, have slots — physical holes on paper or virtual ones on a home page — that result in the publication of stories that are not necessarily the most interesting or timely, but are required to fill the space. It was partly to discourage such slot-filling that BuzzFeed did not focus on its home page when it first started, he said.本史密斯(蜂鸣新闻娱乐网的主编)说道他在裂痕时代对文学创作与报导订下的规矩很非常简单:“不要填充物。


蜂鸣在初期并没专心于主页有一部分原因就是为了压制填满作品。Mr. Kim of SimpleReach says he advises established media companies that “it’s dangerous to start chasing social. You’ll end up like everyone else, and you’ll lose your differentiation.” The question that older publications that are not “digital natives” like BuzzFeed have to ask themselves, Mr. Kim said, is “Are you creating content for the way that content is consumed in this environment?”触手可及公司的金姆先生给知名的媒体公司明确提出建议指出“追上社交是危险性的。你最后不会沦落与其他人一样的下场,你不会丧失自己的个性。

”金姆先生说道像蜂鸣这样非电子名门的老出版物要扪心自问的是:“你建构的内容是按照当下环境里人们消费方式建构的吗?”Ms. Haik, the Washington Post digital editor, is leading a team, started this year, that aims to deliver different versions of The Post’s journalism to different people, based on information about how they have come to an article, which device they are on and even, if it is a phone, which way they are holding it.《华盛顿邮报》电子编辑海客小姐从今年起开始领导一只队伍。该队伍的目标是根据人们认识信息的方式、用于的设备,甚至如果用电话的话所持电话方式来为有所不同的人获取有所不同版本的报纸内容。“We’re asking if there’s a different kind of storytelling, not just an ideal presentation,” she said. For instance, she said, people reading The Post on a mobile phone during the day will probably want a different kind of reading experience than those who are on a Wi-Fi connection at home in the evening.“我们在问否有有所不同的讲故事方式而不只是谋求极致的展出这么非常简单。”她说道。

比如,她说道那些白天用移动手机看《邮报》的人期望获得的读者体验或许和那些晚上在家用无线的人不一样。The Post is putting time and energy into such efforts, Ms. Haik said, because it is “ultimately about sustaining our business or growing our audience.” More than half of its mobile readers, she said, are so-called millennials who consume news digitally and largely through social media sites like Facebook. Some publications have found a niche in taking the opposite approach. The Browser is edited by Robert Cottrell, a former journalist at The Financial Times and The Economist. Mr. Cottrell skims about 1,000 articles a day, he said, and then publishes five or six that he finds interesting for about 7,000 subscribers who pay $20 a year. A recent selection included the life of an early-20th-century American bricklayer and a study of great Eastern philosophers.海客小姐说道《邮报》在花时间和经历做到这样的事是因为“终极目标是保持经营以及减少读者数量。


有些出版物从另一个角度抵达也为自己寻找立足之地。《The Browser》的编辑是罗伯特科特雷尔,他之前曾在《金融时报》和《经济学人》供职记者。科特雷尔先生说道他每天大约要网页1000篇文章。


“The general idea is to offer a few pieces each day which we think are both enjoyable and of lasting value,” Mr. Cottrell said. “We’re certainly at the other end of the process from the algorithms.”“我们的主要是想要每天获取几篇我们指出既有意思又有长年价值的文章。”科特雷尔先生说道。“我们意味著是在演算法的另一种末端。

”Artificial intelligence, he said, may eventually be able to find a piece of writing moving, in some sense, and want to share it. But for the moment, computers rely on information gathered online “and that is going to be a very, very impoverished data set compared to a human being.”他说道也许人工智能惜有一天不会有能力寻找感人的文章并且在或许上想将文章共享给别人看。不过目前电脑还是要倚赖网上收集的信息,“并且它的数据与人类比起是十分肥沃的。

”Mr. Marra, the Facebook engineer, agrees that a human editor for each individual would be ideal. “But it’s not realistic to do that at scale for every person on the planet,” he said, “and so I think we’ll always have these hybrid systems like News Feed that are helping you find the things that you care about.” It is simply, he said, “a personalized newspaper.”脸书工程师马拉先生也表示同意如果每个人都享有一位人类编辑那不会十分极致。“不过要让地球上每个人都拥有这种待遇不现实。”他说,“所以我指出我们不会仍然利用想要动态消息这样的杂交系统协助你找寻你在乎的东西。




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